Samuel Stebbins

1. Wisconsin

> Poverty rate: 31.3% Black, 9.0% white
> Homeownership rate: 25.5% Black, 71.1% white
> Unemployment rate: 10.0% Black, 3.0% white
> Median household income: $31,351 Black, $64,377 white

Wisconsin ranks as the worst state in the country for Black Americans. Due in part to housing discrimination in cities like Madison and Milwaukee, Wisconsin is a highly segregated state, with over 50% of the Black population residing in majority Black neighborhoods. Segregation often fuels racial disparities, and many Black communities in Wisconsin are suffering. Black unemployment in the state stands at 10%, more than triple the 3.0% white jobless rate. Additionally, the typical Black household in the state earns just $31,351 a year, less than half the median income of $64,377 among white households in the state.

Inequalities are not just economic, but also social – particularly with regard to law enforcement and the justice system. Black Wisconsin residents are over 12 times more likely than white residents to be incarcerated in a state of federal correctional facility. Black residents make up over 42% of the state’s prison population and only 6.3% of the overall population.

2. Minnesota

> Poverty rate: 28.6% Black, 7.3% white
> Homeownership rate: 24.3% Black, 76.0% white
> Unemployment rate: 8.8% Black, 3.0% white
> Median household income: $37,811 Black, $74,387 white

Racial gaps in several key socioeconomic outcomes makes Minnesota the second worst state in the country for Black Americans. Due to racial zoning and redlining, urban areas in Minnesota, particularly the Twin Cities, are among the most segregated places in the country. Housing segregation has given way to highly segregated public schools and vastly disparate education outcomes. Only 81% of Black adults in Minnesota have a high school diploma compared to over 95% of white adults. A high school education is a prerequisite for many employment opportunities, and the 8.8% Black unemployment rate across Minnesota is nearly three times the 3.0% white jobless rate.

Inequalities are not just economic, but also social – particularly with regard to law enforcement and the justice system. Black Minnesota residents are over 10 times more likely than white residents to be incarcerated in a state of federal correctional facility. Black residents make up over 36% of the state’s prison population and only 6.3% of the overall population.

3. Iowa

> Poverty rate: 31.9% Black, 10.1% white
> Homeownership rate: 24.4% Black, 73.6% white
> Unemployment rate: 10.6% Black, 3.3% white
> Median household income: $32,139 Black, $62,097 white

In Iowa, Black residents are over nine times more likely to be incarcerated than white residents. Though only 3.6% of the state’s population are Black, over 25% of Iowans in a federal or state correctional facility are Black.

Such disparity contributes to inequality in other areas, including political and economic outcomes. For example, 11.4% of Black Iowans are disenfranchised due to a felony conviction compared to 1.5% of white Iowans. Incarceration and criminal records can also vastly reduce employment opportunities and earning potential. In Iowa, Black unemployment stands at 10.6% compared to the state’s 3.3% white unemployment rate. Additionally, the typical Black household in the state earns just $32,139 a year, well below the median income of $62,097 among white households in the state.

4. Illinois

> Poverty rate: 26.1% Black, 9.4% white
> Homeownership rate: 38.8% Black, 72.8% white
> Unemployment rate: 14.1% Black, 4.5% white
> Median household income: $38,573 Black, $71,922 white

Illinois is home to some of the most segregated cities in the country, including Chicago. Springfield, Rockford, Peoria, and Champaign-Urbana. Black communities in these cities are often underserved and have limited economic opportunity. Across Illinois, Black unemployment stands at 14.1%, more than three times the 4.5% white jobless rate – the largest unemployment gap in the country.

Due in part to the high Black unemployment, the state also has significant racial disparities in income and earnings. The typical Black household in the state earns just $38,573 a year, about $33,300 less than the median income of $71,922 among white households in the state. Black Illinois residents are also more than twice as likely as their white counterparts to live below the poverty line.

6. Connecticut

> Poverty rate: 17.9% Black, 7.6% white
> Homeownership rate: 39.4% Black, 72.5% white
> Unemployment rate: 10.4% Black, 5.0% white
> Median household income: $49,000 Black, $85,502 white

Connecticut has some of the worst income inequality in the United States – and inequality along racial lines is one contributing factor. The typical Black household in the state earns just $49,000 a year, about $36,500 less than the median income of $85,502 among white households in the state. Income inequality is driven in part by disparities in the labor market, as Black workers in Connecticut are more than twice as likely to be unemployed as their white counterparts.

Inequalities are not just economic, but also social – particularly with regard to law enforcement and the justice system. Black Connecticut residents are nearly 11 times more likely than white residents to be incarcerated in a state of federal correctional facility. Partially as a result, Connecticut ranks as the worst state for Black Americans in the Northeast.

7. Nebraska

> Poverty rate: 25.0% Black, 9.6% white
> Homeownership rate: 30.1% Black, 69.1% white
> Unemployment rate: 8.0% Black, 2.9% white
> Median household income: $35,976 Black, $63,641 white

Segregation can lead to unequal socioeconomic outcomes, and communities and schools in parts of Nebraska, including Omaha, have historically been, and continue to be, highly segregated. One of the most pronounced disparities in the state is in income. The typical Black household in the state earns just $35,976 a year, well below the median income of $63,641 among white households.

The state’s large income gaps along racial lines are attributable in part to inequality in the job market. Black unemployment in Nebraska stands at 8%, nearly triple the 2.9% white jobless rate.

8. New Jersey

> Poverty rate: 17.3% Black, 7.8% white
> Homeownership rate: 38.9% Black, 71.4% white
> Unemployment rate: 9.8% Black, 4.7% white
> Median household income: $53,247 Black, $88,810 white

New Jersey ranks as the eighth worst state for Black Americans overall and the second worst in the Northeast. Its ranking is due in large part to disparities in some key health outcomes. For example, the infant mortality rate among the state’s Black population stands at 9.9 for every 1,000 live births, compared to 3.2 per 1,000 among white New Jersey residents – the largest such gap of any state.

Inequalities are not just health related, but also social – particularly with regard to law enforcement and the justice system. Only 12.7% of New Jersey’s population are Black, while more than 60% of those incarcerated in correctional facilities in the state are Black, the largest such disparity of any state.

9. Ohio

> Poverty rate: 29.6% Black, 11.1% white
> Homeownership rate: 35.6% Black, 71.7% white
> Unemployment rate: 11.5% Black, 4.3% white
> Median household income: $33,158 Black, $61,108 white

Ohio is home to several Rust Belt cities – such as Cincinnati, Cleveland, and Dayton – that in the previous century, employed exclusionary housing covenants that entrenched segregated neighborhoods. As a result, Ohio remains one of the most segregated states in the country. Census data shows that 47% of Black Ohio residents live in majority Black neighborhoods. Segregation can lead to increased levels of inequity, and Ohio has some of the widest racial gaps in the country.

Some of the most glaring inequities in the state are economic. For example, the Black poverty rate of 29.6% in Ohio is nearly three times the 11.1% white poverty rate. Additionally, at 11.5%, Black unemployment is more than double the 4.3% white jobless rate.

10. Pennsylvania

> Poverty rate: 26.0% Black, 9.7% white
> Homeownership rate: 43.2% Black, 73.3% white
> Unemployment rate: 11.1% Black, 4.4% white
> Median household income: $38,560 Black, $65,306 white

Pennsylvania ranks as the 10th worst state for Black Americans and the third worst in the Northeast. Segregation can fuel racial disparities, and Pennsylvania is one of the more heavily segregated states, with about 47% of Black residents living in majority Black communities. One area of significant racial disparity in Pennsylvania is in the state’s job market. Black unemployment is an estimated 11.1% in the state, well more than double the 4.4% white unemployment rate.

Disparities are not just economic, but also social – particularly with regard to law enforcement and the justice system. Though only 10.7% of Pennsylvania’s population are Black, 46% of those incarcerated in the state are Black.

11. Utah

> Poverty rate: 27.2% Black, 8.6% white
> Homeownership rate: 28.9% Black, 72.5% white
> Unemployment rate: 6.4% Black, 3.3% white
> Median household income: $41,752 Black, $73,580 white

Utah ranks as the worst Western state for Black Americans and the 11th worst state nationwide. Only 1.1% of the state’s population identify as Black. As the second to last state in the West to repeal bans on interracial marriages, the state has had racist laws on the books more recently than much of the rest of the country. Today, Black state residents are nearly nine times as likely as white residents to be incarcerated in a state or federal correctional facility.

Economic disparities in Utah are also profound. The typical Black household in the state earns just $41,752 a year, compared to the median income among white households of $73,580. Additionally, more than one in every four Black state residents live below the poverty line, compared to fewer than one in every 10 white residents, one of the largest such gaps of any state.

12. Louisiana

> Poverty rate: 31.4% Black, 12.8% white
> Homeownership rate: 47.2% Black, 74.7% white
> Unemployment rate: 10.0% Black, 4.8% white
> Median household income: $30,540 Black, $60,288 white

Like much of the Deep South, Louisiana had some of the most stringent and repressive segregation laws in the country, and the legacy of those policies loom large today. One of the most segregated states in the country, over 56% of Black Louisiana residents reside in majority Black communities. Many schools in the state are also largely segregated, which gives way to disparate educational outcomes. Currently, only about 80% of Black adults in Louisiana have a high school diploma, compared to 88% of white adults in the state.

Black Louisiana workers are also twice as likely to be unemployed and Black residents are twice as likely to live below the poverty line as their white counterparts.

13. New York

> Poverty rate: 21.1% Black, 10.4% white
> Homeownership rate: 31.3% Black, 63.6% white
> Unemployment rate: 9.1% Black, 4.3% white
> Median household income: $48,557 Black, $76,737 white

New York state has the highest degree of income inequality in the United States – and inequality along racial lines is one contributing factor. The typical Black household in the state earns just $48,557 a year, compared to the median income among white households of $76,737. Additionally, about one in every five Black state residents live below the poverty line, compared to one in every 10 white residents.

Homeownership is one of the most practical ways to build intergenerational wealth in the United States, and the Black homeownership rate in New York of 31.3% is less than half the 63.6% homeownership rate among the state’s white population.

14. North Dakota

> Poverty rate: 25.7% Black, 8.4% white
> Homeownership rate: 7.8% Black, 65.9% white
> Unemployment rate: 7.3% Black, 2.2% white
> Median household income: $37,872 Black, $68,066 white

Homeownership is one of the most practical ways to build intergenerational wealth in the United States. In North Dakota, the Black homeownership rate is just 7.8%, the lowest of any state and a fraction of the state’s 65.9% white homeownership rate. The North Dakota Advisory Committee to the U.S. Commission on Civil Rights conducted a study on access to fair housing in the state for minority populations and provided a list of recommendations in July 2021. These included harsher penalties for housing discrimination and increased investment in affordable housing.

Other stark disparities in the state include poverty, as more than one in every four Black North Dakotans live below the poverty line, compared to fewer than one in every 10 white residents. Additionally, even though only less than 3% of North Dakota’s population are Black, Black prisoners account for 12% of the state’s incarcerated population.

15. Maine

  • > Poverty rate: 34.8% Black, 11.1% white
  • > Homeownership rate: 22.1% Black, 73.3% white
  • > Unemployment rate: 7.5% Black, 4.0% white
  • > Median household income: $42,901 Black, $58,459 white

Based on racial disparities in several key socioeconomic measures, Maine ranks as the 15th worst state for Black Americans and second worst in the New England region. Maine has a Black poverty rate of 34.8%, the highest of any state and more than triple the white poverty rate in the state of 11.1%.

The higher likelihood of poverty for the state’s Black residents is likely partly the result of disparities in education outcomes. For example, only 82.5% of Black adults in Maine have a high school diploma, over 10 percentage points below the white high school diploma attainment rate. Black adults in Maine are also over nine times more likely than their white counterparts to be incarcerated in a state or federal correctional facility.

16. South Dakota

> Poverty rate: 22.9% Black, 8.8% white
> Homeownership rate: 19.2% Black, 71.5% white
> Unemployment rate: 3.8% Black, 2.4% white
> Median household income: $38,706 Black, $61,351 white

Only 2% of South Dakota’s population identify as Black, one of the smallest shares of any state – and the disparities between the state’s Black and white residents in key economic measures are among the largest in the country. For example, the Black poverty rate in the state of 22.9% is more than double the 8.8% white poverty rate.

South Dakota also incarcerates a far larger share of its Black residents than most states. A reported 1,547 in every 100,000 Black South Dakotans are in a state or federal correctional facility compared to only 242 white state residents per 100,000.

17. Mississippi

> Poverty rate: 31.6% Black, 12.8% white
> Homeownership rate: 53.5% Black, 77.4% white
> Unemployment rate: 11.1% Black, 5.2% white
> Median household income: $30,714 Black, $55,957 white

Mississippi has historically been one of the most segregated states in the country – and much of that segregation, and its effects, are apparent today. According to the census, nearly 57% of Black Mississippi residents currently live in majority Black neighborhoods, a larger share than in all but three other states. Mississippi’s long history of stringent segregation and racial oppression has also wrought greater inequality than in most other states.

Today, the poverty rate among Black residents is 31.6%, well more than double the 12.8% poverty rate among white residents. Black labor force participants in Mississippi are also more than twice as likely to be unemployed as white workers.

18. Kansas

> Poverty rate: 24.6% Black, 10.4% white
> Homeownership rate: 34.8% Black, 69.4% white
> Unemployment rate: 7.8% Black, 3.7% white
> Median household income: $38,079 Black, $61,812 white

Kansas ranks worse than most states in measures of socioeconomic racial disparity. One of the most pronounced disparities is in the state’s poverty rate. Nearly 25% of Black Kansas residents live below the poverty line, compared to about 10% of white Kansas residents.

Much of the racial inequality evident in the U.S. today can be traced to segregation, as majority Black neighborhoods were historically underfunded and underserved. Though segregation in Kansas in the 20th century was less rigid than in parts of the Deep South, school districts had the option to segregate elementary schools – which ultimately led to the Supreme Court Case, Brown V. Board of Education of Topeka that famously deemed school segregation to be unconstitutional. Today, the white high school diploma attainment rate among Kansas adults is about 5 percentage points higher than among Black adults, and the white bachelor’s degree attainment rate is about 14 percentage points higher.

19. Massachusetts

> Poverty rate: 18.7% Black, 8.3% white
> Homeownership rate: 34.1% Black, 67.4% white
> Unemployment rate: 8.5% Black, 4.3% white
> Median household income: $51,842 Black, $85,789 white

Massachusetts is one of several states in the Northeast where disparities between white and Black residents in key measures are worse than in most other states. One of the most pronounced disparities in the state is between the white and Black incarceration rate. Though Massachusetts’ Black imprisonment rate of 409 inmates per 100,000 people is the lowest of any state, it is more than seven times higher than the white incarceration rate of 57 per 100,000. For context, Black Americans nationwide are about five times more likely than white Americans to be in a federal or state prison.

Disparate incarceration rates can exacerbate inequality in other areas, including income and employment. The Black unemployment rate of 8.5% in Massachusetts is nearly double the 4.3% white unemployment rate, and the typical white household in the state earns about $34,000 more per year than the typical Black household.

20. South Carolina

> Poverty rate: 24.5% Black, 10.9% white
> Homeownership rate: 53.1% Black, 76.3% white
> Unemployment rate: 9.1% Black, 4.5% white
> Median household income: $35,092 Black, $61,722 white

South Carolina has greater socioeconomic disparities along racial lines than most other states. Both the Black poverty rate and unemployment rate in the state are more than double the comparable rates among white area residents.

Some key measures of health outcomes also reveal racial disparity in the state. For example, the infant mortality rate among the state’s Black population stands at 10.5 for every 1,000 live births, compared to 5.0 per 1,000 among white South Carolinians.

21. Indiana

> Poverty rate: 26.9% Black, 11.2% white
> Homeownership rate: 37.2% Black, 73.6% white
> Unemployment rate: 10.7% Black, 4.1% white
> Median household income: $34,895 Black, $59,415 white

Indiana’s public school system is highly segregated. A 2017 study found that the average Black student in Indiana attends school where more than two-thirds of students are non-white. Meanwhile, the average white student in Indiana attends school where less than 20% of students are non-white. Segregated schools are inherently unequal, and so are education outcomes in Indiana. Only about 18% of Black adults in the state have a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared to about 27% of white adults.

Disparities in educational outcomes have serious economic implications. Black Indiana residents are more than twice as likely as their white counterparts to live below the poverty line and more than twice as likely to be unemployed. The Midwestern U.S. has some of the worst racial disparities in the country. And though Indiana has worse inequality than most states, it compares favorably to nearly every other state in the Midwest.

22. Rhode Island

> Poverty rate: 22.0% Black, 10.0% white
> Homeownership rate: 33.7% Black, 65.5% white
> Unemployment rate: 9.7% Black, 4.7% white
> Median household income: $45,727 Black, $71,096 white

Rhode Island ranks better than most Northeastern states for racial inequality but still ranks in the top 25 of states for racial inequality nationwide. Some of the worst disparities are in social measures – particularly with regard to law enforcement and the justice system. Black Rhode Islanders are nearly 10 times more likely than white residents to be incarcerated in a state of federal correctional facility. Black residents make up about 30% of the state’s prison population and only 5.7% of the overall population.

Other stark disparities in the state are in economic measures. For example, the Black poverty rate of 22.0% in Rhode Island is more than double the 10.0% white poverty rate. Black workers are also more than twice as likely to be unemployed than white workers.

23. Missouri

> Poverty rate: 24.7% Black, 11.7% white
> Homeownership rate: 37.6% Black, 71.6% white
> Unemployment rate: 9.2% Black, 3.9% white
> Median household income: $37,179 Black, $58,921 white

Missouri has the lowest level of racial inequality in the Midwest. Still, it ranks among the top 25 states with the worst inequality nationwide. Nearly one in every four Black Missourians live below the poverty line, compared to about one in every nine white residents. Black state workers are also more than twice as likely as white workers to be unemployed.

As is the case in much of the United States, racial disparities in Missouri are attributable in part to segregation. Due to redlining and other discriminatory practices, particularly in major urban areas like Kansas City and St. Louis, Missouri is one of the most segregated states in the country. Over half of the state’s 696,000 Black residents live in majority Black neighborhoods. Many of these communities were underserved, had – and continue to have – limited economic opportunities, and have schools that are overcrowded and underfunded.

24. Alabama

> Poverty rate: 27.0% Black, 12.3% white
> Homeownership rate: 50.8% Black, 76.1% white
> Unemployment rate: 9.5% Black, 4.5% white
> Median household income: $33,928 Black, $57,551 white

Home to Rosa Parks and the Montgomery bus boycott, as well as the marches from Selma to Montgomery, Alabama was ground zero for much of the civil rights movement in the 20th century. Today, it ranks close to the middle of all states in key measures of racial disparities – and much of that inequality is attributable in part to continued segregation, a legacy of racist laws from the previous century. Currently, over half of all Black Alabama residents live in majority Black communities, making it one of the most segregated states in the country.

While many Alabama residents struggle with issues of poverty and unemployment, the burden is shouldered disproportionately by Black communities. The Black poverty rate of 27.0% in the state is more than double the 12.3% white poverty rate. Black workers are also more than twice as likely to be unemployed as white workers.

25. Virginia

> Poverty rate: 17.6% Black, 8.5% white
> Homeownership rate: 47.8% Black, 72.0% white
> Unemployment rate: 7.3% Black, 3.9% white
> Median household income: $51,654 Black, $79,578 white

Virginia ranks in the middle of all states in several key socioeconomic factors measuring racial disparities. The typical Black household in the state earns $51,654 a year, about $28,000 less than the median income of $79,578 among white households. At 17.6%, the Black poverty rate in Virginia is also more than double the 8.5% white poverty rate.

Measures of public health reveal other racial disparities in Virginia. For example, the infant mortality rate among the state’s Black population stands at 10.6 for every 1,000 live births, compared to 4.7 per 1,000 among white Virginia residents – a larger gap than in most other states.

26. North Carolina

> Poverty rate: 22.5% Black, 11.5% white
> Homeownership rate: 45.5% Black, 72.1% white
> Unemployment rate: 9.1% Black, 4.4% white
> Median household income: $39,108 Black, $60,845 white

Some of the worst racial disparities in North Carolina are in measures of education outcomes. For example, only 21.3% of Black adults in the state have a bachelor’s degree or higher, compared to 34.0% of white adults. This wide gap is attributable to a multitude of factors, including segregated and inherently unequal public schools. Segregation remains a problem in the state today, and the problem is getting worse as white students are increasingly enrolling in charter schools.

The effects of segregation and unequal education outcomes are far reaching. Black North Carolinians are about twice as likely as their white counterparts to live below the poverty line and are more than twice as likely to be unemployed. Additionally, white households in the state typically earn nearly $22,000 more each year than Black households

27. Arkansas

> Poverty rate: 29.3% Black, 14.1% white
> Homeownership rate: 43.5% Black, 70.7% white
> Unemployment rate: 9.0% Black, 4.3% white
> Median household income: $32,070 Black, $51,340 white

Segregation can fuel inequality, and Arkansas, like much of the South, is highly segregated. Nearly 44% of Black Arkansas residents live in majority Black neighborhoods, more than double the 19.5% share of all Black Americans residing in majority Black communities nationwide.

In Arkansas, majority Black neighborhoods tend to have relatively limited economic opportunities. For example, the 9.0% Black unemployment rate in the state is more than double the 4.3% white unemployment rate. Additionally, nearly 30% of Black Arkansas residents live below the poverty line, compared to 14.1% of white state residents.

28. Colorado

> Poverty rate: 17.7% Black, 9.4% white
> Homeownership rate: 39.7% Black, 67.7% white
> Unemployment rate: 6.9% Black, 4.0% white
> Median household income: $51,677 Black, $74,730 white

Colorado ranks as the second worst Western state for Black Americans, trailing only Utah. One of the worst racial disparities in the state are incarceration rates. Black Colorado residents are over seven times more likely than white residents to be in a state or federal correctional institution. To put it another way, while only 3.9% of the state’s overall population are Black, about 19% of the incarcerated population in the state are Black.

Homeownership is one of the most practical ways to build intergenerational wealth in the United States, and historically, Black Americans have been excluded from certain housing markets. In Colorado, the Black homeownership rate is just 39.7%, while the white homeownership rate is 67.7%.

29. Oklahoma

> Poverty rate: 27.5% Black, 13.1% white
> Homeownership rate: 38.6% Black, 69.7% white
> Unemployment rate: 9.5% Black, 4.3% white
> Median household income: $35,296 Black, $56,266 white

Oklahoma is home to one of the most horrific acts of racial violence in American history – the Tulsa race massacre. In 1921, a white mob looted and destroyed a part of the city known as Black Wall Street, an economically prosperous Black enclave, leaving as many as 300 dead and thousands homeless. The event pushed many Black Tulsa residents out of the city permanently, and its effects are still felt today, a century later.

There are wide racial disparities in the state today, particularly in economic measures, including income, poverty, unemployment, and more. For example, 27.5% of the state’s Black population live below the poverty line, compared to 13.1% of white Oklahoma residents. Homeownership is one of the most practical ways to build intergenerational wealth in the United States, and in Oklahoma, the Black homeownership rate is just 38.6%, while the white homeownership rate is 69.7%.

30. California

> Poverty rate: 20.5% Black, 12.2% white
> Homeownership rate: 34.8% Black, 58.8% white
> Unemployment rate: 10.4% Black, 5.7% white
> Median household income: $51,837 Black, $78,308 white

Racial inequity in California is perhaps best exemplified by the criminal justice system. Black state residents are over 10 times more likely to be incarcerated than white residents. To put it another way, over 29% of the people in correctional facilities in the state are Black, though Black residents comprise only 5% of the state’s population.

This large gap in incarceration rates can exacerbate other forms of inequality, as those in prison or with criminal records tend to have lower earning potential and fewer job opportunities. In California, the Black unemployment rate stands at 10.4%, compared to the 5.7% white jobless rate. Additionally, the typical Black household in the state earns $51,837 a year, about $26,500 less than the median income of $78,308 among white households.

31. Washington

> Poverty rate: 20.4% Black, 9.5% white
> Homeownership rate: 31.5% Black, 66.4% white
> Unemployment rate: 7.8% Black, 4.6% white
> Median household income: $52,742 Black, $75,135 white

Seattle, like much of the country, was segregated for most of its history and left Black residents excluded from certain neighborhoods, employment opportunities, schools, and hospitals. The effects of racist policies such as these are evident in racial disparities across the state today.

The Black homeownership rate in Washington stands at 31.5%, less than half the white homeownership rate in the state of 66.4%. Homeownership is one of the most practical ways to build intergenerational wealth in the United States, and historically, Black Washington residents faced far greater restrictions to homeownership than white residents. Currently, more than one in every five Black Washington residents live below the poverty line, compared to less than one in every 10 white residents.

32. Oregon

> Poverty rate: 26.3% Black, 12.3% white
> Homeownership rate: 33.6% Black, 64.3% white
> Unemployment rate: 9.0% Black, 5.2% white
> Median household income: $41,773 Black, $63,499 white

When Oregon joined the union in 1859, it explicitly forbade Black people from living within its borders, making it the only state in the country to have had such racist and restrictive laws. It was not until 1926 that Black Americans would be allowed to move to the state. Today, socioeconomic racial disparities in Oregon are pronounced.

The poverty rate among Oregon’s Black population stands at 26.3%, more than double the 12.3% white poverty rate. Homeownership is one of the most practical ways to build intergenerational wealth in the United States, and the Black homeownership rate in Oregon stands at 33.6%, compared to the white homeownership rate in the state of 64.3%.

33. Florida

> Poverty rate: 22.0% Black, 12.1% white
> Homeownership rate: 45.3% Black, 69.6% white
> Unemployment rate: 9.1% Black, 4.8% white
> Median household income: $41,702 Black, $58,809 white

Though racial disparities are less profound in Florida on aggregate than they are in most states – particularly other Southern states – there are still wide gaps in key socioeconomic measures by race.

The Black unemployment rate in Florida of 9.1% is nearly double the 4.8% white jobless rate. Additionally, the typical Black household in Florida earns just $41,702 a year, while most white households earn over $58,800 annually. Incarceration rates further underscore racial gaps in Florida. Florida’s Black imprisonment rate of 1,207 inmates per 100,000 people is more than four times higher than the white incarceration rate of 281 per 100,000.

34. Maryland

> Poverty rate: 13.3% Black, 6.7% white
> Homeownership rate: 51.5% Black, 75.8% white
> Unemployment rate: 7.5% Black, 3.9% white
> Median household income: $67,583 Black, $94,278 white

Race based segregation can fuel inequality, and by some measures, Maryland is the most segregated state in the country. According to census data, 59.3% of Black Maryland residents live in majority Black neighborhoods, the largest share of any state in the country. These highly segregated communities often lack economic opportunity than more integrated communities.

Across Maryland, 7.5% of the Black labor force are unemployed, compared to the 3.9% white unemployment rate. Additionally, Maryland’s Black poverty rate of 13.3% is well above the 6.7% white poverty rate. Black Maryland residents are also more than five times as likely as their white counterparts to be incarcerated in a state or federal correctional facility.

35. New Hampshire

> Poverty rate: 19.8% Black, 7.2% white
> Homeownership rate: 32.4% Black, 72.3% white
> Unemployment rate: 8.1% Black, 3.5% white
> Median household income: $57,925 Black, $77,015 white

New Hampshire has the second lowest level of socioeconomic racial inequality in the Northeast, after Vermont. Still, differences in social and economic outcomes along racial lines are stark in the state. For example, nearly 20% of Black New Hampshire residents live below the poverty line, compared to just 7.2% of white state residents. Black state residents are also far more likely than their white counterparts to be incarcerated in a state or federal correctional facility. Only 1.4% of New Hampshire’s population are Black, while nearly 7% of prisoners in the state are Black.

Education outcomes reveal further racial disparities in the state. Only 26.8% of Black adults in New Hampshire have a bachelor’s degree or higher, nearly 10 percentage points below the comparable share of white adults in the state.

36. Nevada

> Poverty rate: 23.0% Black, 11.0% white
> Homeownership rate: 29.3% Black, 61.6% white
> Unemployment rate: 10.3% Black, 5.6% white
> Median household income: $41,034 Black, $64,008 white

The vast majority of Nevada’s population reside in the Las Vegas area – a place where, until the 1960s, Black residents were restricted from living or working outside of the city’s Westside. Racial segregation is inherently unequal, and racial desparities are still evident in Nevada today.

Homeownership is one of the most practical ways to build intergenerational wealth in the United States, and the Black homeownership rate in Nevada stands at 29.3%, compared to the white homeownership rate in the state of 61.6%. Black Nevada residents are also twice as likely as white residents to live below the poverty line and Black workers are nearly twice as likely to be unemployed.

37. Vermont

> Poverty rate: 25.9% Black, 10.5% white
> Homeownership rate: 24.4% Black, 71.7% white
> Unemployment rate: 4.4% Black, 3.5% white
> Median household income: $39,400 Black, $62,539 white

Vermont has the smallest socioeconomic racial gaps of any Northeastern state. Still, variations in certain key measures along racial lines are stark. For example, more than one in every four Black Vermonters live below the poverty line, compared to about one in every 10 white state residents. Additionally, the Black homeownership rate in the state of 24.4% is a fraction of the 71.7% white homeownership rate.

Disparities are also evident in the state’s justice system. Black Vermont residents are over eight times more likely than white residents to be in a state or federal correctional institution. To put it another way, about 10% of the incarcerated population in the state are Black, even though Black residents comprise only 1.3% of the state’s population.

38. Delaware

> Poverty rate: 18.6% Black, 9.0% white
> Homeownership rate: 51.0% Black, 78.2% white
> Unemployment rate: 8.1% Black, 4.7% white
> Median household income: $50,361 Black, $72,508 white

Homeownership is one of the best ways to build wealth in the United States. Though the Black homeownership rate in Delaware of 51.0% is higher than the 41.8% national Black homeownership rate, it is well below the 78.2% white homeownership rate in the state. The lower homeownership rates among Black residents in the state are partly the result of racist housing policies of the previous century.

Also due in part to historic discrimination, which limited most Black Delaware residents to labor and service jobs, economic disparities remain evident along racial lines in the state. For example, the Black poverty rate in Delaware of 18.6% is more than double the state’s 9.0% white poverty rate.

39. Georgia

> Poverty rate: 21.5% Black, 11.3% white
> Homeownership rate: 46.7% Black, 72.5% white
> Unemployment rate: 8.6% Black, 4.2% white
> Median household income: $44,670 Black, $66,473 white

A former slave state, and one in which Black residents were disenfranchised and subject to Jim Crow laws, Georgia also played a central role in the Civil Rights Movement. Still, the legacy of centuries of racist laws has given way to racial inequality to this day.

Black unemployment in the state stands at 8.6%, more than double the 4.2% white jobless rate. Additionally, the typical Black household in the state earns just $44,670 a year, well below the median income of $66,473 among white households in the state. Inequalities are not just economic, but also social – particularly with regard to education outcomes. Only 24% of Black adults in the state have a bachelor’s degree or higher, 10 percentage points below the white bachelor’s degree attainment rate.

40. Tennessee

> Poverty rate: 24.7% Black, 12.9% white
> Homeownership rate: 43.0% Black, 71.8% white
> Unemployment rate: 8.9% Black, 4.5% white
> Median household income: $38,791 Black, $56,725 white

Even though racial oppression was not as pronounced in Tennessee as it was in parts of the Deep South, over a period of about 100 years ending in the 1950s, Tennessee enacted 20 Jim Crow laws. These included school segregation, a prohibition of interracial marriage, and seperate public accomodations, among others. Tennessee was also the birthplace of the Ku Klux Klan.

The legacy of Tennessee’s racial oppression still looms large. Today, the typical Black household in the state earns $38,791, about $18,000 less than the median income among white households. Black workers are also nearly twice as likely to be unemployed and Black residents more than twice as likely to live below the poverty line as their white counterparts.

41. Kentucky

> Poverty rate: 27.8% Black, 16.0% white
> Homeownership rate: 36.6% Black, 70.8% white
> Unemployment rate: 9.5% Black, 5.1% white
> Median household income: $36,424 Black, $52,278 white

As was common across the South during Reconstruction, segregated life in Kentucky was marked by hardship for Black state residents. Limited employment opportunities, poverty, and police oppression were common in Black communities – and the legacy of these realities are still evident in Black communities across the state.

The typical Black household in the state earns $36,424 a year, about $15,900 less than the median income of $52,278 among white households. At 27.8%, the Black poverty rate in Kentucky is far higher than the 16.0% white poverty rate. Measures of public health reveal other racial disparities in Kentucky. For example, the infant mortality rate among the state’s Black population stands at 10.7 for every 1,000 live births, compared to 6.4 per 1,000 among white Kentucky residents.

42. Alaska

> Poverty rate: 14.2% Black, 7.2% white
> Homeownership rate: 37.6% Black, 68.4% white
> Unemployment rate: 4.7% Black, 5.2% white
> Median household income: $62,191 Black, $85,298 white

Alaska was granted statehood in 1959, after much of the most oppressive racist laws were off the books in the United States. Indeed, racial disparities are less pronounced in Alaska than they are in much of the rest of the country. For example, Alaska is the only state in the country where the Black unemployment rate is lower than the white jobless rate, at 4.7% compared to 5.2%.

Still, certain socioeconomic measures reflect some level of racial inequality in Alaska. For example, while the typical Black household in the state earns $62,191 a year, more than in nearly every other state, the median income among white Alaska households is about $23,100 higher, at $85,298. Additionally, at 14.2%, the Black poverty rate is nearly twice as high as the 7.2% white poverty rate in Alaska.

43. West Virginia

> Poverty rate: 29.2% Black, 16.9% white
> Homeownership rate: 42.4% Black, 74.7% white
> Unemployment rate: 10.5% Black, 6.4% white
> Median household income: $33,133 Black, $47,143 white

During the Reconstruction Era, West Virginia offered Black Americans a number of opportunities that were denied to them in other states. Still, the thousands of African Americans who moved to the state after the Civil War faced institutional segregation as well as discrimination.

Today, many in West Virginia are struggling economically – but economic hardship appears to be disproportionately shouldered by the state’s Black population. Nearly 30% of Black West Virginians live below the poverty line, compared to about 17% of the state’s white population. Additionally, Black unemployment in the state stands at 10.5%, compared to the 6.4% white jobless rate.

44. Arizona

> Poverty rate: 20.3% Black, 13.2% white
> Homeownership rate: 34.6% Black, 67.7% white
> Unemployment rate: 8.5% Black, 5.3% white
> Median household income: $47,386 Black, $61,172 white

Arizona was a highly segregated state in the early 20th century. Segregation in public schools across the state was characterized by unequal conditions for Black students who typically had far fewer resources than their white counterparts. The segregated education system and broader social segregation have left a legacy of disparity in the state.

The Black homeownership rate in Arizona stands at 34.6%, just over half the white homeownership rate in the state of 67.7%. Homeownership is one of the most practical ways to build intergenerational wealth in the United States, and historically, Black Arizona residents faced far greater restrictions on homeownership than white residents. Currently, more than one in every five Black Arizona residents live below the poverty line, compared to about 13% of white state residents.

45. Idaho

> Poverty rate: 30.3% Black, 12.3% white
> Homeownership rate: 37.6% Black, 71.3% white
> Unemployment rate: 8.5% Black, 4.2% white
> Median household income: $43,034 Black, $56,683 white

Exclusionary housing covenants known as redlining have meaningfully impacted Black Americans’ ability to build wealth through homeownership in much of the United States, and Idaho is no exception. Cities like Boise and Pocatello employed redlining practices in the mid-20th Century – and today, the Black homeownership rate in Idaho is just 37.6%, just over half the 71.3% white homeownership rate.

Black Idaho residents are also far less likely to be financially secure than their white counterparts. Just over 30% of Black Idaho residents live below the poverty line, compared to the 12.3% white poverty rate – one of the largest such disparities in the country.

46. Montana

> Poverty rate: 16.3% Black, 11.6% white
> Homeownership rate: 27.8% Black, 69.8% white
> Unemployment rate: 6.6% Black, 3.5% white
> Median household income: $44,614 Black, $56,282 white

Montana has the smallest Black population in the United States. Only about 4,700 state residents, or 0.4% of the total population, are Black. In the late 19th and early 20th century, Montana had several racist laws on the books, including segregated schools and a prohibition of interracial marriage. Such discrimination pushed Black residents into their own enclaves and led to further social and economic segregation.

The legacy of these conditions are disparities in several key social and economic measures in the state. For example, Montana’s 27.8% Black homeownership rate is well below half the 69.8% white homeownership rate. Additionally, the typical Black household in the state earns $44,614 a year, about $11,700 less than the typical white household – even though Black Montana residents are more likely than their white counterparts to have a four-year college education.

47. Wyoming

> Poverty rate: 15.3% Black, 10.5% white
> Homeownership rate: 28.8% Black, 71.6% white
> Unemployment rate: 8.9% Black, 4.2% white
> Median household income: $47,386 Black, $64,820 white

Wyoming has one of the smallest Black populations of any state. Only about 5,200 state residents identify as Black, or 0.9% of the total population. Wyoming did not enforce segregated school laws, and, unlike the other Rocky Mountain states, allowed Black men to vote without prompting from Washington D.C. Anecdotally, even though there were racist laws, including a prohibition on interracial marriages, Wyoming has generally been a more tolerant state historically than much of the rest of the country.

Still, as is the case everywhere in the United States, job opportunities and financial security are far more elusive for Black Wyoming residents than white state residents. Black unemployment in the state stands at 8.9%, more than double the 4.2% white jobless rate. Additionally, even though Wyoming’s 15.3% Black poverty rate is among the lowest in the country, it is considerably higher than the state’s 10.5% white poverty rate.

48. Texas

> Poverty rate: 19.3% Black, 13.8% white
> Homeownership rate: 40.7% Black, 66.4% white
> Unemployment rate: 7.8% Black, 4.6% white
> Median household income: $46,572 Black, $64,810 white

Segregation in Texas in the latter part of the 19th century and into the 20th century has shaped much of the racial inequality evident in the state today. Historically, Black schools in the state often had lower funding. Many labor unions rejected Black membership, and Black workers were typically relegated to unskilled labor jobs. And when they did hold the same job as white workers, they were often paid less.

Today, the 40.7% Black homeownership rate in the state is well below the 66.4% white homeownership rate. Earnings among Black Texas residents also remains well below white earnings. Most Black households in the state earn less than $47,000 a year, while most white households earn over $64,810.

49. New Mexico

> Poverty rate: 24.2% Black, 16.7% white
> Homeownership rate: 40.2% Black, 69.7% white
> Unemployment rate: 7.3% Black, 5.9% white
> Median household income: $40,528 Black, $52,444 white

Though New Mexico joined the union in 1912, decades after the most oppressive and racist laws in the country’s history were taken off the books, it still introduced many of the same racist policies that led to segregated housing in other parts of the country in the 20th century. Housing covenants banning Black homeownership in certain parts of the state, including much of Albuquerque, have resulted in reduced Black homeownership in New Mexico. Today, the Black homeownership rate in the state of 40.2% is well below the 69.7% white homeownership rate.

Restrictive housing laws also limited Black families from building wealth through homeownership. Partially as a result, Black New Mexico residents are far more likely to struggle financially than white state residents. New Mexico’s Black poverty rate stands at 24.2%, compared to the 16.7% white poverty rate.

50. Hawaii

> Poverty rate: 9.4% Black, 9.5% white
> Homeownership rate: 23.3% Black, 54.7% white
> Unemployment rate: 9.3% Black, 4.6% white
> Median household income: $69,678 Black, $81,319 white

Hawaii has the smallest disparity in key socioeconomic indicators between Black and white residents of any state. Hawaii is also the only state in the country where the Black poverty rate is below the white poverty rate, at 9.4% compared to 9.5%.

Still, several measures reveal some degree of racial disparity in Hawaii. For example, even though the median income among Black households in the state is the highest in the country at $69,678, it is still about $11,600 less than the median income of $81,319 among white households in the state. At 9.3%, Black unemployment is also high in Hawaii – double the 4.6% white unemployment rate

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New Orleans Must Improve the Lives of ALL African Americans

By Jeff Thomas

Many people often say I’m too focused on race. But look around our city. Most of the big social problems are in the African American community. Murder. Car jackings. Poverty. Covid hospitalizations. Drug abuse. Unemployment. The list goes on and on and on. Fixing these problems in that part of the African American community that struggles makes the city great for EVERYBODY. So if you are black or white or Asian or Hispanic and doing pretty good want to live in a safer cleaner city, let’s fix the problems in the ailing parts of our city. Helping poor black people benefits everybody.

Good news is we can do it. And it is not that hard. New Orleans should be a sanctuary city for the poor and struggling African Americans.  Every policy and regulation possible should support this notion.  And given the egregiously regressive and burdensome past, city government should fast track all current, available solutions.   Even a cursory glance at   the plight of  hard-working African Americans  in the city provides ample evidence of the urgent need for change.

Broken Paradigm

Our current paradigm has created and sustains the crime-plagued, underperforming city. Low-performing schools contribute to the highest dropout rates in the country.  Gentrification and low-paying jobs force many into the rental market in our city.  And people who own their homes are nearly 90% less likely to commit crimes compared to those who rent. Though the murder rate is once again the highest in the country per capita.  African Americans in NOLA die at alarmingly high rates. Especially when it comes to young people.  We must fix serious and deeply-entrenched problems here quickly.  It can be done with surprising ease if a coordinated attempt is employed.


Characteristics of the sanctuary should include

Combined, these targets will dramatically reduce poverty and improve the quality of life for all our citizens.  With access to good-paying jobs and pathways to home ownership, crime will drop precipitously.  Working men, who earn living wages, will fatten city coffers via property and sales tax payments.  Needing fewer police officers, more money could then be shifted into job training programs. These programs prepare young people to enter the workforce and become taxpayers.


The Sewerage and Water Board can be the greatest jobs program in city history.  Billions of FEMA dollars are scheduled to be spent repairing crumbling infrastructure. The board must hire, train and demand excellence from its repair people.  Our ability to pump water is our lifeline. We must invest in training our people to protect our property. The SWB is more important than the NOPD.  SWB must pay enough to enable employees to purchase homes. 


Eighty five percent of people who commit crimes do not own their homes. Neighborhoods where people own their homes are cleaner, safer. And they provide ancillary activities (kids sports programs, block parties, etc.) that promote healthier living.  Living wages help people qualify for mortgages.  City-sanctioned home ownership classes would motivate and inspire people to save for down payments and improve their credit scores.  The soft second mortgage programs should also be expanded.


Working families need close and convenient good schools for their children.  Our experiment with charter schools must shift to emphasize local school excellence.  Good neighborhood schools reduce stress, increase participation and reduce dropout rates, which in turn strengthen families.  Parent-school partnerships are easier when parents are able to access school personnel close to home.  Friendly rivalries centered around athletic and academic achievement will transform educational achievement[  in The Bowl.  Businesses could offer cash prizes to the students who perform best and the schools which achieve great successes.


Police Chief Shaun Ferguson rose through the ranks. And he is a man from our streets who now leads the men and women who patrol our streets.  He says, “The community and police must form a partnership.”  He is correct when he says the NOPD needs citizen support.  Right now, our NOPD is dangerously understaffed. Shifting to 12 hour shifts increases presence on the streets. Good move Chief. Also moving more desk and clerical jobs from police to citizen staffing will enable more officers to get out. And top brass should patrol our neighborhoods. They are our best and brightest. They have the experience and authority to effectively decipher complex situations. Is a shouting match serious?

We know arresting and jailing people for minor crimes, even for short periods of time, has dramatic and real effects. And ironically results in yet more crime.  Instead, community policing operates in an atmosphere of cooperation and respect.  Too often, police have operated with rigidity and oppressiveness. That stifles the community support it needs, desires, and deserves. 

For too long, New Orleans and other municipalities have focused on fines and fees to finance government.  Police decide who gets pulled over and issued a ticket.  Furthermore, rigid rules and immediate late fees from municipal utilities create undue stress in an already overburdened populace. 

In the 21st century, our cities must uplift the lives of all the citizens who make these places home.

It happens everyday in America!

By Jeff Thomas

Black men kill each other at alarming rates all across America every day. Nearly every city’s daily news casts reports, “Today in our city three (or thirty depending on the size of your city) men were shot and killed in three (or thirty) separate shootings.  Police have no suspects in any of the cases.”  And immediately and innately you know that the people killed were black and the killers were black.  This has been going on for the last 30-40 years and no end is in sight.  New Orleans has one of the highest murder rates nationally.  Why do black men kill each other?

First Let’s Dispel a Racist Myth

First thing you have to know is that 99.999% of black men do not commit murder ever in their lives.  That is a fact!  This is not a black man issue.  There is nothing genetically or intrinsically wrong with black men. But the fact remains that daily hundreds of black men across this country are murdered everyday by another black man.  Why does this happen with this subset?

Common factors to Black men murdering other black men


The first thing about murder is that people usually kill people who are similar to them in many ways, particularly race.  White men normally murder other white men and black men normally murder other black men. 


In the black community, these killings are normally city events.  Rarely do you hear of a drive by in the country.  Most of these daily killings occur on the city streets.  People kill others who they interact with.


Young men engage in risky and violent behavior.  Most of the men dying on our streets are between the ages of 17-35. 


Nearly 95% have not graduated from college and 65% have not completed high school.   

Socioeconomic Status

100% were not upper class in America. The links between poverty and crime are well documented.  And black men have lived in depression level economic conditions for the last 50 years.

But these are often cited, unsurprising factors.  More salient is what goes into the psyche of a guy who can look into the eyes of another man and pull the trigger at close range or jab a knife with the intent to murder another man?  What are the other factors that contribute to becoming a murderer? Why do Black men kill each other

Habitually Hostile Men

The guy who ain’t never scared and always looking to escalate a situation.  Down for whatever.  Nothing to live for and anticipating the day he will either kill or be killed.  This mindset is cultivated in a limited option, few chances, success deprived life.  This guy has had a number of arguments and fist fights throughout his life.  He hates authority and frequently feels angry or resentful towards people.  He often seeks to overcome a feeling of powerlessness.  This guy is a walking heap of rage.  He is always nothing but a gun and an argument away from murder.

The Disrespected Man

A man who feels like everybody but him gets respect.

For this guy, respect is everything and options to express anger or refutation are often limited.   He often seeks to overcome a feeling of impotence. If another who seems unworthy of disseminating criticism or scorn or generally crosses the line of imagined respect, then a high level of response will be meted out.

The Wannabe

When challenged by a non-believing skeptic, this man often acts in unnecessarily violent ways in unnecessarily violent situations.  Often seeks to overcome a feeling of powerlessness.


The daily feeling of isolation, powerlessness and impotence is like being a prisoner of war.  One reason black men grab their genitals is to stress their vitality.  Men who have been literally stripped of the ability to display their manhood – great jobs, big houses, educational attainment and all the other accoutrements of modern society- are literally killing to express their power in life.  Twisted but true.

According to a Dietitian

All your questions about booze, diet, and health—answered!


ENJOYING A NICE glass of red wine with dinner, sipping a tumbler of bourbon after a long day, trying a new craft beer, or mixing up your own cocktail. Everyone loves a good drink from time to time. Though drinking too much (and, we’ve all been there) isn’t good for you, it is possible to incorporate your favorite alcoholic beverage into a healthy lifestyle.

So, what is healthy drinking? “Moderation is key,” says Brittany Kunza, M.D., a medical director at virtual health platform PlushCare. “Alcohol really shouldn’t be considered ‘healthy,’ but it certainly can be part of social gatherings.”

The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) recommends no more than two drinks a day for men and one for women. But, two-thirds of adults say they drink more than that at least once a month.

Drinking too much long-term can bring many health consequences, such as high blood pressure, heart disease, liver disease, and stomach problems. It can also weaken your immune system and increase your risk for certain cancers.

Either inspired by these health risks or striving to cut back for other reasons, many people are partaking in Dry January or permanently embracing a “sober curious” lifestyle. And, non-alcoholic, booze-inspired drinks are becoming more popular.

Many aspects of drinking can affect your health—how much you drink, how often, and your beverages of choice. A healthy approach to drinking alcohol is part of a healthy approach to life. Often, that means choosing drinks that are lower in sugar and calories, such as skipping sugary mixers and using seltzer in place of tonic.

What’s the best way to balance drinking and a healthy lifestyle?

It’s best not to overdo it when it comes to alcohol and stick to two drinks or less a day. But, having a few more from time to time likely won’t harm your health—just don’t drive when you’re drinking.

Everyone is different in terms of how they handle alcohol. Some people can drink more than others before they feel drunk.

“Alcohol impairment is an individual number that is different from person to person,” says Ernest Gelb, D.O., president of the American Osteopathic Association. “The legal limit is 0.08, but there are many individuals who can’t tolerate that much alcohol. The end result of impairment is the same and will not end well.”

It’s a good idea to understand what’s considered a “standard drink,” too, says Dr. Kunza. According to the CDC, standard drink sizes include:

What Kinds of Alcohol Are the Healthiest Options?

Ignore the myths you heard in high school about your body processing certain alcoholic beverages in different ways. Your liver doesn’t recognize wine from beer from a Long Island Iced Tea—it only processes alcohol.

That said, if a drink is higher in alcohol, your liver has to work hard. So if you’re drinking a finger of Scotch whisky neat (typically about 40% alcohol by volume, or ABV), your liver is going to have an easier time than with that Long Island Iced Tea (typically four shots of alcohol—all of which are roughly 40% ABV).

So, usually, the simpler the drink—and the less of it that you’re drinking—the better off your liver (and you!) will be. Here’s what to know about drinking different kinds of booze.


Beer can contain anywhere from 103 to 350 calories per 12 ounces. Craft beers often have a higher ABV than traditional macro-beers. And more alcohol means more calories.

For example, a 12-ounce beer with 9% ABV (typical for craft brews) has about 270 calories. But because craft breweries don’t have to list the calorie count on their beers, you can use this handy equation to estimate the number of calories in your beer: Multiply the ABV by 2.5, then multiply that by the number of ounces in your beer.

Vodka, tequila, and other spirits

Put this in the myth category. Tequila—as well as vodka, rum, and gin—all have zero grams of carbs, so they won’t raise your blood sugar if you drink them straight up. If you have diabetes, you should count your drink as two fat exchanges.

But don’t fall for the hype that choosing a tequila made from 100 percent agave changes the impact. All of the health attributes of agave (aka lower glycemic index, etc.) are gone once it’s been distilled into tequila. That said, choosing pure, agave tequila means you’ll typically skip unnecessary additives like caramel coloring. It’s also gluten-free.

Most distilled alcohol, including gin, rum, vodka, and whiskey, contains between 97 and 116 calories per 1.5 ounces.

Hard seltzers

Most hard seltzers are lower in alcohol, ranging from 4% to 6% ABV. But, they can contain added sugar.

Look for brands that offer very little sugar per serving. Otherwise, you’ll take in an overload of calories, mainly from the sweet stuff. Spiked seltzers, on the other hand, aren’t a bad option. Ideally, you want one that’s zero-calorie flavored sparkling water with booze added.


Most wines contain 120-130 calories per 5-ounce glass. But, the sugar content can vary. A glass of red table wine contains about 0.9 grams of sugar, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. Some white wines, like chardonnay, can contain 1.4 grams of sugar, and super-sweet dessert wines can have 7 grams.


Determining the calorie and sugar content of a cocktail is tricky, as it depends on what ingredients they contain. A simple vodka soda with seltzer and a squeeze of lime would be a low-calorie, low-sugar option.

But, sweet cocktails like a mai tai can have as much as 300 calories and loads of sugar. Creamy drinks like a White Russian or Piña Colada can clock in at more than 500 calories.

It’s always a good idea to opt for low-calorie mixers and avoid drinks overflowing with sugar, Dr. Gelb says.

You also need to drink plenty of water, too

Alcohol is a dehydrator. So, it’s crucial to drink plenty of water while you’re enjoying a beer or cocktail.

“Physicians recommend a one-for-one ratio, which is one 8-ounce glass of water for every alcoholic drink,” says Brian Fiani, D.O., attending neurosurgeon at Weill Cornell Medicine/NewYork-Presbyterian Hospital and vice chair of the American Osteopathic Association Bureau of Emerging Leaders.

Drinking alcohol can also irritate the stomach, worsen acid reflux, and contribute to gastritis, Dr. Kunza says. So, it’s a good idea to eat something before you drink or while you’re drinking.

How Drinking Too Much Affects Your Body

Having a few too many glasses of wine or overdoing it on the beer is OK every so often. Drinking too much of even low-calorie alcohol long-term can be detrimental to your health.

For one, it can affect the brain and spine. “Specifically, regarding the central nervous system, alcohol slows down the cerebral cortex process, which can lead to poor judgment,” Dr. Fiani says.

Long-term drinking can damage the brain’s frontal lobes, which can affect decision-making, memory, judgment, and impulses, he adds. It can also lead to degenerative disc disease of the spine and cause back pain.

Excessive alcohol intake over a long time period can cause a thiamine deficiency, which might lead to someone developing the brain disorder Wernicke-Korsakoff Syndrome, Fiani says. “This condition can cause irreversible mental confusion, loss of coordination, and memory problems similar to dementia.”

Overdoing it on alcohol can cause (or increase your risk for) a number of other health problems, like liver disease, pancreatitis, cancer, high blood pressure, anemia, GI problems, and other conditions.

Signs You Might Be Drinking Too Much

Excessive daily drinking could signal a drinking problem. “Individuals who can’t just have one drink would be a warning sign,” Dr. Gelb says.

If you feel you fall into this category, the Substance Abuse and Mental Health Services Administration is a good place to start.

The bottom line is: When alcohol or any substance use begins to interfere with your life, it’s problematic, says Lea McMahon, LPC, Ed.D., chief clinical officer at Symetria Recovery.

Mental health and addiction professionals use criteria from the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-5) to assess substance use and how it affects someone’s life, she says. Patients are asked a series of questions, including:

“The number of yes answers determines the degree to which one’s substance use is problematic,” McMahon says. For example, two or three yeses might signal a mild alcohol use disorder, four or five a moderate disorder, and six or more a severe disorder.

by Mark Travers Ph.D.

Successful couples’ counseling starts with a shift in these four behaviors.

Many people assume that a successful relationship is something that happens by itself. They may have the idea that some people “just click,” and that the more effort one has to put into their relationship, the less likely the partnership is to work.

But the truth is that all relationships take work and we should always be striving to be better partners. In this article, I’ll talk about four habits you can develop to manage what psychologist and relationship expert John Gottman views as the most common relationship killers.

1. Be gentle, not critical.

Criticism is a direct attack on someone’s character or behavior. It may be expressed as an accusation or judgment about one partner’s personality rather than a specific action or event.

Criticism sounds like, “You never help around the house!” instead of “I feel frustrated when you don’t help with chores.” Criticism often leaves people feeling attacked, unheard, and defensive.

While it’s not likely realistic to tell yourself that you’ll never be critical of your partner again, you can work on how you deliver your critiques. For instance, use “I” statements instead of “you” statements. Express a positive need instead of negative judgment. Avoid making your partner feel attacked.

Here’s an example. Instead of saying, “You always talk about yourself. Why are you so self-obsessed?” try reframing it as “I feel left out in our conversations. Can we please talk about my day as well?”

2. Appreciate instead of being contemptuous.

Contempt goes beyond criticism. It’s a damaging form of communication that involves attacking one’s sense of self-worth with name-calling, hostile humor, body language, and/or sarcasm.

A contemptuous relationship often involves using sarcasm or making disrespectful jokes about a partner’s character traits or behaviors, behind their back and to their face. Contempt sounds something like, “Oh, don’t start your emotional drama again.”

To cure contempt, build the habit of nurturing fondness and admiration in your relationship by engaging in appreciation.

Here’s an example. Instead of saying, “You forgot to do the laundry again? Why are you so lazy and forgetful?” try reframing it into “I understand that you’ve had a long day, but could you please remember to do the laundry on days I work late? It would be really helpful and I’d really appreciate it.”

3. Take responsibility instead of being defensive.

Defensiveness occurs when one or both partners respond to conflict by denying responsibility for their contribution to the problem and shifting blame onto their partner instead.

Defensiveness can include phrases such as:

When people go on the defensive, it leads to further arguments without resolution because both partners feel like they have been unfairly accused or blamed for something they didn’t do.

The antidote to defensiveness is to accept responsibility for your role in a conflicting situation. Develop the habit of taking mutual responsibility.

An example: Instead of accusing the other person by saying: “It’s your fault that we’re late because you take way too much time to get dressed!” try reframing it as “I like to be on time as much as possible. But it’s OK, we can be flexible at times.”

4. Try self-soothing in place of stonewalling.

Stonewalling occurs when one person withdraws emotionally from an argument to avoid further conflict. This can take many forms—such as avoiding eye contact, walking away from discussions before they’re resolved, refusing to talk about certain topics altogether, and shutting down conversations if things get too heated.

Stonewalling does nothing to address the underlying issues between two people. Instead, it increases feelings of isolation and disconnection which can then lead to further resentment between partners over time.

Self-soothing is an antidote to stonewalling. When you sense an impending stonewalling situation, instead of shutting yourself down completely, first stop the conversation, communicate with your partner, and take a break to practice physiological self-soothing for a minimum of 20 minutes.

Here’s an example of how you can go about it: “I am feeling overwhelmed with our conversation. I need to take a break. Can you give me twenty minutes to take a walk around the block and I will get back to you after that?”


Relationships are like most other living things: They need constant nurturing to achieve their fullest expression. Take time to reflect on how you can approach your relationship with more patience, appreciation, and responsibility-taking. Things can, and will, get better.

If only Alvin Richard and Jimmie Woods had identified as black women. Maybe then Mayor LaToya Cantrell would’ve given their trash contracts the first-class treatment.

Surely, if a black woman requires $30,000 in upgraded “protection” to travel on an airplane, then black businessmen must require so much more to traverse the treacherous process of getting a major contract, then keeping it in this city.

Instead, the mayor has smeared mud on their names. And given them both a lesson in the politics of trash. Politics can get dirty in New Orleans.

Why Is Mayor Cantrell Discriminating Against Black Business?

As Gerod Stevens once said on WBOK’s The Reality Check, “Ever since these two black men got these contracts, they’ve had to fight like hell to hold on to them.”

Mayor Cantrell has had no time for their struggles. Whenever they’ve brought up an issue, her response has simply been: you can miss me with that. And she proceeded to channel her inner Mitch Landrieu and get down to the business of running these two high performing businessmen out of business.

Jimmie Woods, owner of Metro Service Group, tried to inform the administration that his company was owed more money. He explained that his company was picking up trash from more houses than initially estimated. The mayor heard that and essentially flipped him to voicemail. She then proceeded to not pay an extra dime. And that was despite a mutually agreed upon 3rd party concluding that Metro’s contract stipulated the city did in fact owe the company more money.

Then Woods and Alvin Richard of Richard’s Disposal informed the administration that COVID and Hurricane Ida had both companies hauling a larger tonnage of trash. As a result, their dump fees increased. Again, the contract required the city to pay for the extra trash. But again the mayor refused. And this too was despite both being eligible for emergency funds the city had already received from the federal government.

You can run scenario after scenario. And no matter what, the mayor’s response to the city’s legal obligations to these two black businessmen has been silence or a big so what.

You couldn’t blame Richard and Woods if this left them feeling like they’re in a similar situation as the soon-to-be ex-Mrs. Vappie claims— wondering if their contractual obligations were being screwed by the mayor.

But with Metro driven out of the residential trash disposal business in New Orleans, the mayor apparently has had no qualms about spreading her wallet wide for Sidney Torres.

With much fanfare, the mayor signed a new contract with IV Waste, Torres’s company. Now the city is paying twice as much per household than it was paying Metro. And this is for half the service — one day a week picking up, instead of two. Maybe citizens should identify with Mrs. Vappie, too.

Why all the hostility, though? Why would the mayor agree to this ridiculous contract when the city could’ve gotten better service for less. There’s a simple answer: the mayor is using Torres’ inflated contract to try and drive Richards out of business, too.

Richard’s Disposal is hiring drivers now!

As Alvin Richard said, if you’re going to pay the competition double, then they are just going to lure his workers away. That has already started. And it hasn’t taken long for the mayor to pay Torres even more money. She quickly hired him to cover the parts of a route after Richards fell only a couple of days behind.

This is typical New Orleans politics, and politics in general. You support my campaign, and when I get elected, I’ll throw contracts your way. This is the politics of trash in New Orleans.

Remember back when Cantrell was a councilperson running a tight mayoral campaign against Desiree Charbonnet?  Just as he is today, Torres was a known supporter of Cantrell then. And he took it upon himself to not only sponsor a debate, but also host it as well.

The Politics of trash in New Orleans

Attorney Suzette Bagneris made an important point on WBOK radio. Paying for a debate is a slick way of skirting campaign finance laws. Campaign finance law caps individual contributions to a mayoral candidate at $5,000. Clearly, putting on a televised debate costs a lot more than that.

Of course, Desiree Charbonnet didn’t show up. Torres then set up a PAC to attack her candidacy. And Cantrell went on to win the election. Now it seems that Mayor Cantrell has finally found a way to pay Torres back. Typical politics. Typical New Orleans.

Mayor Cantrell can get this one right. Councilman Freddie King asked Mr. Richard how much the city owed him. He replied about $5,000,000. The administration knows Richards picks up more houses than the city pays for. He deserves the full amount owed. And he should be paid the market rate of at least $28 per house. That’s what the city is paying IV Waste. So Richard’s should be equally paid for doing the exact same work.

Richard’s contract should be extended, too. For the last 15 years it has been the best disposal company in this city. They are a local success story. Celebrate and promote them. Don’t destroy another successful home-grown Black business.

Clearly, this is one of those teachable moments former president Barack Obama always talked about. From allegedly sleeping with her security detail officer, to overseeing one crime wave after another, to discriminating against two major black businesses, this mayor has given a lesson in the politics of trash. Now suddenly she finds herself surrounded by a city full of adversaries who are looking forward to a day when she and her tonnage will be hauled away.

The politics of trash in New Orleans.





Black owned businesses operate in every business sector.  Many are small shops.  But others are some of the biggest businesses in the country.  These companies’ stocks are sold on national stock exchanges. They employ tens of thousands of people.  These biggest Black owned companies earn billions of dollars annually.  This is our list of the 20 biggest black owned companies.

20. Salamander Hotels & Resorts

Revenues: $220 Million

Employees: 2500

CEO: Sheila C. Johnson

Owned by Sheila Johnson, cofounder of Black Entertainment Television, Salamander Hotels and Resorts is a 168-room luxury hotel, resort, and spa located in the Virginia countryside. The hotel is built on a 340 acre property and boasts a 230,000 square foot spa with many outdoor activities such as hiking, zip-lining, and horseback riding. The resort took ten years to build, finally opening in August 2013.

19. Devon Industrial Group

Revenues: $234 Million

Employees: 70

CEO: David A. Burnley Sr

Devon Industrial Group is a construction company located in Michigan. They specialize in construction projects in various sectors, including commercial, health care, industrial, and educational. The Devon Industrial Group’s main target market for its services is across the midwestern states of the United States, with the headquarters in Detroit Michigan.

18. Georgetown Metal Processing

Revenues: $235 Million

Employees: 30

CEO: Kirk Lewis

Georgetown Metal Processing is a steel processing service center, specializing in blanking and warehousing located in Georgetown, Kentucky. Their produce range includes aluminum, flat-rolled steel, cold-rolled steel, coated and exposed steel products. Georgetown Metal Processing boasts an 80,000 square foot facility, which is climate controlled due to the nature of their work.

17. Bird Electric

Revenues: $238 Million

Employees: 587

CEO: Dale LeFebvre

Founded in 2004, Bird Electric is a leading full-service electric company. Services provided by the company include transmission, maintenance, instrumentation and electrical construction, automation, and storm restoration. Bird Electric operates in over ten states in the United States including Texas, Georgia, Oklahoma, Arkansas, Kansas, Florida, Mississippi, Idaho, California, New Mexico, Alabama, Maryland and Puerto Rico.

16. Baldwin Richardson Foods

Revenues: $252 Million

Employees: 350

CEO: Eric G. Johnson

Richardson Foods is a leading custom ingredients manufacturer for the food and beverage industry. It is a family owned company originally founded as Baldwin Ice Cream in Chicago. Illinois in 1921. In 1997, five years after current CEO Eric Johnson purchased the company, Baldwin Ice Cream Company purchased Richardson Foods, creating Baldwin Richardson Foods. Over the next twenty years, the retail business grew to become a custom ingredients manufacturer making many kinds of liquid products for the food industry, including condiments, sauces, and syrups.

15. Adams Communication & Engineering Technology

Revenues: $253 Million

Employees: 385

CEO: Charles M. Adams

Founded in Maryland in 1999 by Charles Adams, Adams Communication & Engineering Technology is a leading technology company providing services for Government Defense, Intelligence, and other Federal Agencies of the United States. The company provides products and solutions in information systems, healthcare systems, aerospace, and electronics.

14. Millennium Steel of Texas

Revenues: $266 Million

Employees: 86

CEO: Andrea M. Jackson

Founded in San Antonio Texas by Henry Jackson in 2005, Millennium Steel of Texas ia a steel company providing automotive grade outer body steel sheets to auto makers across the state of Texas. Their services include steel processing, warehousing, and storage.

13. Global Automotive Alliance Corporation

Revenues: $275 Million

Employees: 1647

CEO: William F. Pickard and Sylvester L. Hester

Global Automotive Alliance is a holding company of many different companies originally founded by William Pickard in 1989. It is a consolidation of logistics and automotive manufacturing companies with eight plants in the United States and Canada. GAA supplies to top three United States automakers: Ford, General Motors and Fiat Chrysler. In addition, it also supplies to other global companies such as Boeing, Mercedes Benz, Starbucks, and Home Depot.

12. Millennium Steel Service

Revenues: $312 Million

Employees: 51

CEO: Andrea Jackson

Sister company of Millennium Steel of Texas, Millennium Steel Services is an automotive steel processing and warehousing company based in Princeton Indiana. It provides warehousing and supply chain management including inventory managements, inspection, slitting, and information technology system services.

11. Fair Oaks Farms

Revenues: $342 Million

Employees: 257

CEO: Michael L. Thompson

Fair Oaks Farms is food services company which produces fresh, ready-to-cook, and fully cooked beef, pork, and poultry products. Products offered by the company include sausages, cured meats, smoked meats, and canned meats. Founded in 1985 in Pleasant Prairie, Wisconsin in the United States, Fair Oaks Farms distributes its products to a variety of national and international restaurant chains and food companies.

10. Hightowers Petroleum Co.

Revenues: $435 Million

Employees: 52

CEO: Stephen L. Hightower

Operating for over 58 years, Hightowers Petroleum Co. is a petroleum products distribution company founded by Stephen “Steve” Hightower in 1982. Coming from a family of entrepreneurs, Hightower built the company from humble beginnings to a well-established business through persistence, drive, and determination. It is a family business providing services in bulk fuel delivery, HPC fleet cards, inventory management, emergency fuel, and supply chain managements.

9. Urban One (NASDAQ:UONEK)

Revenues: $440 Million

Employees: 1058

CEO: Alfred C. Liggins III

Based in Silver Spring, Maryland, Urban One Inc is a publishing and broadcasting company primarily providing content aimed at the African American community. Self-titled as the “leading voice speaking to Black America “, Urban One Inc is the largest distributor of urban content in the United States since 1980. It is the largest Black-owned broadcasting company in the United States, with 53 radio stations, cable network TV One, digital media company iOne, and news provider NewsOne all under its belt.

8. The Anderson-Dubose Company

Revenues: $703 Million

Employees: 543

CEO: Warren E. Anderson

Launched in 1991, The Andersons-Dubose Company is a distribution company providing logistics services to McDonalds and Chipotle fast food restaurants in the states of Ohio, Pennsylvania, New York and West Virginia in the United States. Their services roster includes transportation of groceries, happy meal toys, paper products, dairy products, frozen meat and fish, and other food products. The Anderson Dubose Company operate from two locations, one is a 210,497 square foot facility in Lordstown, Ohio and the other is in Rochester, New York.

7. Thompson Hospitality

Revenues: $760 Million

Employees: 6,000

CEO: Warren M. Thompson

Thompson Hospitality Corporation is a food and facilities management company providing hospitality services in the United States. It is the largest minority-owned Food Service and one of the largest Retail Food and Facilities Management companies in the United States. Thompson Hospitality Corporation was originally founded as a restaurant company in 1992 and has now branched out to offer all services of the hospitality industry.

 In 2010, the company was awarded the Black Enterprise Award of Company of the Year. In 2017, Washington Business Journal ranked it #1 Minority Owned Company. And in 2019 they were again recognized by Washington Business Journal as the Largest Independent Employer Company.

6. Bridgeman Foods

Revenues: $870 Million

Employees: 20,000

CEO: Ryan Bridgeman

Located in Oak Creek, Wisconsin, United States, Bridgeman Foods is a part of the fast-food and quick-service restaurants industry. Formerly known as Manna Inc, Bridgeman Foods was founded in 1988 in Louisville, Kentucky. Currently Bridgeman Foods affiliates operate 139 Wendy’s restaurants, 27 Golden Corral Buffet and Grill restaurants, 83 Fazoli’s restaurants, 6 Mark’s Feed Store restaurants, 7 Blaze Pizza restaurants, Napa River Grill, Jimmy John’s, and The Layover Bar.

5. Modular Assembly Innovations

Revenues: $1,042 Million

Employees: 259

CEO: Billy R. Vickers

Modular Assembly Innovations is one of the United States’ largest black-owned businesses. Based in Dublin, Ohio, Modular Assembly Innovations is the parent corporation of a group of certified, minority-owned companies part of the Machinery Manufacturing industry. MAI companies include Great Lakes Assemblies, Gulf Shore Assemblies, Indiana Assemblies, and North American Assemblies. These are all aware winning, tier one suppliers of automotive parts to customers in both the United States and abroad.

4. Coca-Cola Beverages Florida

Revenues: $1,310 Million

Employees: 4,800

CEO: Troy D. Taylor

A family owned company, Coca-Cola Beverages Florida L.L.C. is an independent Coca-Cola (NYSE:KO) beverage bottler company with over 18 million consumers across 47 counties of the state of Florida. This includes all the major metropolitan markets of Jacksonville, Miami, Orlando, and Tampa. Coca-Cola Beverages Florida L.L.C. , or Coke Florida as it’s known for short, manufactures, sells, and distributes over 600 products of the giant Coca Cola Company as well as many other partner companies.

Coca-Cola Beverages Florida has received a number of awards. They received the Minority Business Enterprise Supplier of the Year Class IV honor in 2020. The Florida State Minority Supplier Development Council also recognized Coca-Cola Beverages Florida L.L.C. as the Supplier of the Year Class IV in the same year.

3. Bridgewater Interiors L.L.C

Revenues: $ 1,969 Million

Employees: 2,400

CEO: Ronald E. Hall Jr.

Founded over 20 years ago, Bridgewater Interiors is an automotive seating manufacturing company based in Detroit, Michigan. The company specializes in JIT (just-in-time) manufacturing, sequencing, and delivery of seating in automotive vehicles. The company does assembly for 15 car models belonging to four automotive manufacturers. Bridgewater Interiors has four facilities at its two locations, three in Michigan and one in Alabama.

Bridgewater Interiors L.L.C has received a number of accolades throughout the years. In 2013, the U.S. Department of Commerce, through its Minority Business Development Agency, named Bridgewater Interiors its Manufacturer of the Year. General Motors (NYSE:GM), Honda (NYSE:HMC), and Ford (NYSE:F) have all recognized Bridgewater Interiors for their quality and service.

2. Act 1 Group

Revenues: $2,800 Million

Employees: 2,000

CEO: Janice Bryant Howroyd

ActOne Group is a privately held corporation based in Torrance, California founded in 1964. The ActOne Group, stylized as Act 1 Group, is a global enterprise that provided employment, workforce management, and procurement solutions to a wide range of industries. ActOne is the largest debt-free woman-owned, minority-owned workforce management company in the United States. ActOne is a global leader in the human resources industry and currently operates in 19 countries around the world with 17,000 clients and 2,600 employees worldwide.

The CEO, Janice Bryant Howroyd was awarded winner of the 2016 Peter Yessne Staffing Leadership Award for all her efforts.

1. World Wide Technology

Revenue: $11,287.419 Million

Employees: 5,378

CEO: David L. Steward

Topping the list of 20 biggest black-owned companies in the United States is technology solution provider World Wide Technology with $11.2 billion in annual revenue and more than 5,000 employees. Founded in 1990, World Wide Technology provides supply-chain technology to 45% of Fortune 500 companies. The company provides information technology and software solutions. Some of the world’s most recognizable brands are WWT’s customers, namely Boeing, Cisco, AT&T, Microsoft,  and the US Air Force. World Wide Technology employs more than 3,800 people and operates in more than 20 facilities throughout the world.

New Orleans has a crime problem.  The solution is not more police.  The solution is more and better jobs.  In New Orleans, that means more and better black owned businesses. Black businesses create better jobs for African Americans.  And that is because black businesses hire African Americans at a higher rate and pay them more money.  Our community needs more black jobs.  Those are jobs for us by us. 

We Need Black Jobs

Black jobs by definition are offered by African American businesses to African American people.  Black companies hiring black people. Strong African American companies create generational wealth.  People with good jobs are good tax paying citizens.  Our city council must create meaningful pathways to black jobs.  Creating access to contracts and the capital to fulfill them is the proper role of our city council.  Some states offer free land or no taxes to attract businesses.  The New Orleans City Council must offer contracts and capital.  That creates Black jobs – African American companies hiring African Americans people to do work.

Black jobs are the key to our city’s future. Growing an African American business class provides long-term stability for our families.  Hiring African Americans and providing good paying jobs has immediate impacts.  People with good jobs are much less likely to engage in crime.  If you got a good job – paying all your bills and have some left over – you don’t need to be on the corners involved in street crime.  If you have a good paying job, you will not be angry all the time.  You will have something to live for.  And you won’t shoot the guy next door over “disrespect!”  And having an African American company to offer the jobs means better jobs.

The best employers for young African American men are African American businesses.  A reason white owned companies hire more white employees is because people like to work with people who are like them. Cohesive happy environments foster creativity, productivity and profitability. Yes diversity is very important.  But we just do not have enough successful African American businesses. This dearth contributes to the troubled neighborhoods. We must do better in New Orleans. We must develop, support an grow more African American businesses.  Creating business opportunities in our communities strengthens our communities.  Good jobs help young men develop into good citizens.  And growing Black businesses promote other ancillary Black businesses. Those will also hire African Americans.  Black jobs are the best jobs.

For our existing African American owned businesses, we need to support and protect them. Bigger companies want their valuable contracts.  But the city council must protect these contracts.  We need successful African American companies to support our communities.  The profits stay here and are multiplied when the companies are New Orleans based.  New Orleans based African American companies help reduce crime, grow the tax base and create more business opportunities.  More black jobs make New Orleans a better city.

We must support our local businesses.  Our political leaders must contribute to their success.  If they need help, that is precisely the role of government.  Instead of tax breaks to attract big businesses, we need tax incentives that support local businesses.  Support our local African American owned businesses. They create black jobs.  Black jobs are the best jobs. 

We published a list of things that white people should never say to their black co-workers. Now, Risha Grant, a public relations professional and diversity and inclusion expert, asked white people on her Facebook feed, to list the things that black people say or may do that annoy them.

Here are 16 of the top annoyances (mild and otherwise) that white people said they felt about black people mostly in the workplace, but also in general (these are posted verbatim from Risha Grant’s Facebook feed):



















The Center for Disease Control defines health disparities as “preventable differences in the burden of disease, injury, violence, or opportunities to achieve optimal health that are experienced by socially disadvantaged populations .” As the second-largest minority population in the United States, African Americans have been disadvantaged racially, socially, and economically for decades and their health has been drastically affected by this trend through a number of factors.

Factors outside the community

The socioeconomic status of African Americans is a determinant of healthcare access and is an integral part of how race affects health . Racism in healthcare is not new. On average, African Americans have limited access to good quality, conveniently located healthcare facilities. In communities with a high proportion of African Americans, these necessary facilities are placed few and far between and are of poor quality. This has fostered a mindset that is in denial of health issues amongst the community members as there are most times no affordable treatment available, increasing the percentage of chronic illnesses. Research has shown a high correlation between low income and being uninsured, implying that African Americans struggle to afford any insurance.

A racial and economic gap has existed between African Americans and white Americans since 1968 with no significant sign of change. People assume that the amount of money someone makes is based on their job, but for African Americans, their race is tied to their income level and as a result, their health. The average black person has earned about 57 percent of what the average white American makes from 1968 to 2016 . The U.S. economy enforces regulations that keep the majority of the finances in the hands of the richest members of society, excluding most people of the African American race .

Still today, the average white American household earns 6.5 times the amount of an African American household, despite a thriving U.S. economy. Income level is also reflected in the type and placement of housing, allowing for large groups of people within the same race and income level to form their own neighborhoods and attracting those who wish to take advantage of this.

The health and safety of any individual is a priority.

Factors within the community

Health starts with what you eat. Everything you put inside your body is either nourishment or a detriment and for African Americans, the latter is more often true but not by accident. It has been found that unhealthy foods are promoted heavier in African American communities as they are often cheaper and what can be afforded, leading to drastically reduced access to healthy food choices, even in grocery stores. Studies have shown that there is a higher prevalence of fast-food restaurants among and an inverse relationship with low-income neighborhoods, even at the national level . This means that as the overall income level of the neighborhood goes down, the number of fast-food restaurants increases. 

In most cases, the population of African Americans per area was a better indicator of fast-food restaurant density than household . Essentially, increasing proportions of African Americans in a neighborhood is an indicator of average decreasing income levels and is positively correlated with an increasing number of fast-food restaurants. The conclusion can be made that these fast-food establishments follow elevated African American populations because they are guaranteed business as their prices are more affordable, but the food rarely has any great nutritional value and is highly fattening. What can be seen as somewhat healthy, such as a side salad, is often twice or three times as expensive making it the least likely to be bought by people with limited funds or knowledge of healthier food options.

Effects and implications of these factors 

It is no surprise that with all these factors in place to promote unhealthy eating amongst the African American population, a frightening number of health concerns have also raised. The risk factors, morbidity, incidence, and mortality rates for the top ten leading causes of death are disproportionately greater for African Americans than white Americans . This leads to elevated death rates for heart disease, stroke, cancer, asthma, influenza and pneumonia, diabetes, HIV/AIDS, and homicide, and decreased life expectancy overall for African Americans at an average of 76.1 years compared to 79.8 years for white Americans .

Another obvious effect would be the high obesity rates among adults and children that contribute to a number of additional health risks such as high blood pressure, high cholesterol, heart attacks, and strokes, not to mention decreased performance in completing everyday tasks. The strategic placement of and excess access to unhealthy food without the same ease of access to health facilities to combat the issues that arise shows that the U.S. economy has no intention of closing the racial or socioeconomic gap between white Americans and African Americans soon. 

What can be done to alleviate these effects?

This issue with African American health disparities is a matter of environmental justice because it is concerned with the equal distribution of environmental burdens such as health hazards and other inequalities . It is the responsibility of the U.S. government to provide all citizens with equal access to healthy food choices and healthcare facilities. The implementation of universal, race-neutral policies would be a step in the right direction . Other means of solving the food situation in African American neighborhoods directly might include improved transportation to facilitate access to healthful foods or mobile markets to increase the supply of fresh produce, and nutritional education . There is too much of U.S. history built out of racism for all of our problems to be fixed with any one solution, but these propose a good start. Until the racial, ethnic, and socioeconomic disparities between African-Americans and white Americans are dissolved, environmental justice cannot be achieved.

If you haven’t tried some of these, your waistline really wants you to.

If you haven’t tried some of these, your waistline really wants you to.


There’s a good reason that some like it hot. Capsaicin — the compound that gives peppers their fiery kick — helps boost metabolism by raising your body temperature.


Surprise! Contrary to popular belief, hot red peppers aren’t the only veggies that contain metabolism-boosting capsaicin. Though bell peppers have smaller amounts, they still allow you to get your fix.


Celery might not seem like it has any superpowers, but it’s blandness can be beneficial. It doesn’t have much taste on its own, but chomping on the super low-calorie food stimulates digestion, keeps your body hydrated, and has plenty of fat-burning fiber, all of which amp up your metabolism.


Nothing to be sorry for, Charlie. Tuna — along with salmon, mackerel, herring, and sardines — contains omega-3 fatty acids, which stimulate the production of hormones that regulate metabolism and appetite.


You need water to survive — and drinking eight glasses a day is also great for your metabolism. A small study published in the Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism found that consuming 500 ml of water caused metabolic rate to spike 30 percent within 10 minutes, an effect that lasted for around a half hour.


These nuts are rich in polyunsaturated fats, which studies show could help melt belly fat. The how isn’t totally clear, but it could be because mitochondria, the energy factories of cells, need polyunsaturated fats to help burn flab.


Yup, that’s just a fancy word for green tea. It not only packs a bit of caffeine, which speeds up your heart rate and thus your metabolism, but it also has norepinephrine-stimulating EGCG, a nutrient that helps boost your metabolic rate.


Keep the taste of the Caribbean alive in your kitchen. This tropical fruit contains papain, an enzyme thought to improve digestion — a key to boosting metabolism and torching fat.


This nutty spread is a low-glycemic food, meaning it helps keep your blood sugar levels stable. That’s crucial when your blood sugar spikes and crashes on the regular, it slows down your metabolism.


Don’t vote all carbs off the island. Oats are loaded with beta-glucan, a special type of fiber that helps slow the digestion of carbohydrates, which releases sugars at a slower rate. This triggers certain metabolic responses that decrease appetite.


Move over apples and oranges! This tart citrus fruit contains naringenin, an antioxidant that helps keep your blood sugar consistent and helps improve calorie burn.


People who upped their yogurt intake — eating at least one serving a day — dropped almost a pound every four years, according to a study published in the Journal of the American Medical Association that followed nearly 120,000 adults for two decades. Those who skipped a serving a day gained weight.


If you’re going to cut back on an Italian dinner, it’s better to ditch the pane than the vino. Refined carbs found in white bread and pasta trigger a release of insulin, which can then store as extra fat. Red wine, on the other hand, contains resveratrol, which may help you better metabolize the sugar you do eat.

It has nothing to do with looks but it’s universally appealing.

by Rosemary K.M. Sword and Philip Zimbardo Ph.D.


Throughout our decades of research, we’ve found that compassion is the overarching trait that brings out the best in oneself, as well as others. Our work includes time perspective, post-trauma, shyness, evil, heroism, meditation, and the indigenous Hawaiian practice of ho’oponopono. Moreover, in recent years studies indicate that compassion is proving to keep people younger, more attractive, healthier, and happier. For us, that is one big wow.

Compassion may be defined as sympathy or concern for the suffering of others, but it’s much more than that. It involves feelings of empathy with someone else and an authentic desire to turn those feelings into pro-social action, when possible (Goetz, Keltner, et al, 2010). We also know that compassion can be taught through meditation training, and, for example, can increase prosocial affect and behavior (Condon, Desbordes, et al, 2012; Lieber, Klimecki, et al, 2011).

To experience true compassion, we must, on some level, feel a deep, emotional connection – empathy – with one or more other people. The recipients of our empathy may be total strangers, or perhaps animals, anywhere in the world. Curiously, for whatever reason, we relate to and connect with them and their situation.

Gain big benefits by being compassionate

While there are numerous benefits to having a compassionate nature – such as routinely taking kind actions that help others – there are also advantages for the compassionate person:

Compassionate meditation

To paraphrase the Dalai Lama, compassion is innate and, like a muscle, it can be strengthened with exercise. According to master meditation instructor Vishen Lahkiani, “From a spiritual approach, you can train our brain to be kinder and more compassionate through meditation .… Think of it as the act of moving from judgment to caring, from isolation to connection from indifference or dislike to understanding.”

In case you are new to meditation, we share Lahkiani’s 6 steps to compassionate meditation below to help you get started. As he shares, “It will take a bit of practice, and it might feel weird or silly at first. But once you get the hang of it, it will become second nature.”

  1. Bring a loved one to mind. Take a deep breath, and on your exhale, see a loved one in front of you in the most vivid detail possible. If you’re not a visual person, just sense their presence. Internalize the feeling of compassion by tuning into the love they inspire within you. Bring awareness to your heart space, and give those feelings of love a color. It could be pink, light blue, green — whatever comes to mind. Allow your heart to marinate in that color.
  2. Allow the compassion you feel to encompass your body. Let yourself go from feeling compassion for your loved one in your heart to feeling the sensations all over your body. Feel it forming a comforting bubble around you. Try your best to find compassion for yourself. As a good friend of mine once put it: “Fill your cup first, only then can you serve from your overflow.”
  3. Expand compassion into the room you’re in. Take another deep breath, and as you exhale, see that bubble of compassion expanding. Imagine it growing and covering everything in the room, including people, plants, pets — no boundaries needed.
  4. Send your compassion to the streets. Now that you’ve got the hang of expanding compassion through a small space, you’re ready to go further afield into your neighborhood. Imagine your bubble of compassion spreading throughout your entire home first, touching anyone who lives there. Next, imagine it expanding to engulf your entire neighborhood.
  5. Allow compassion to encompass your city and country. Start with your city, then expand to your entire country. For this part, imagine a map of your town or city in your mind’s eye that zooms out into a map of your country. See the space beneath you as if you’re flying over it in a helicopter or viewing a drone shot of it.
  6. Allow your compassion to envelop the Earth. This is where things get interesting. Take a deep breath. From your country, you’re going to keep sending this compassion out into your continent on the exhale. Then make your way through every continent for each new exhale. This is the final stage of the practice that connects us not just to those closest to us, but to all of life on Earth.

If you get lost at any point, return to step one. See your loved one in front of you again, charge yourself up with love, and spread it outward again.

By practicing compassionate meditation for a few minutes each day, we can live a happier, healthier life as well as transform not only the way we think about ourselves and those we’re close to, but also the world. How? By the positive micro- and macro- actions we’ll make happen due to our expanded capacity for compassion. Research suggests that seeing someone helping another person creates a state of elevation in the onlooker (Algoe and Haidt, 2009). This data in turn proposes that elevation then inspires onlookers to help others—and it may just be the force behind a domino effect of greater empathy and giving.

Finally, we advance the proposition that compassion is contagious: Acts of generosity and kindness beget more generosity in a chain reaction of goodness going forward (Fowler and Christakis, 2010). Let us become the bright spark that illuminates the world.

Maybe the City Council should have a say over who the police chief appoints too. They’ve already gained control over the mayor’s appointees. And given who Interim Chief Michelle Woodfork has surrounded herself with, there may be some questions in order. Let’s meet some of these people, starting with her 2nd in command.

Captain Hans Ganthier. Never heard of him? Well you should’ve. Ganthier was one of the off-duty officers involved in the Beachcorner incident. Remember, that’s when a gang of white off-duty NOPD officers jumped 4 black off-duty RTA workers after an argument in the bathroom line. They kicked and stomped one of the workers, then planted a gun on him, then tried to cover it up by getting an innocent bystander to help falsify a police report.

Ganthier was listed as one of the officers directly involved in the beating. Now Woodfork has appointed him as her right-hand man. Should there be outrage? Belden “Noonie Man” Batiste thinks so.

“You tell me we gon make this man the 2nd in charge when we got a black mayor who says she’s a black woman, but she hires somebody who beat 2 black people up and possibly called them the n-word? Something is wrong with that system to me.”

NOPD Commander Hans Ganthier

Last week, mayor Cantrell, for some reason, voluntarily revealed that she had a say over who Woodfork did and did not appoint.

“Think about it,” Batisite said, “if she’s saying that, then she’s saying the chief don’t got no power. But for the police to do the job they need to do; we need a police chief that the mayor can’t control. That’s the problem with this city.”

Woodfork’s other move was promoting Captain Nicholas Gernon to Deputy Chief of Professional Standards and Accountability. This is an interesting choice, considering that the Independent Police Monitor just investigated Gernon. And they concluded that his standards and accountability weren’t up to par during an investigation he led.

Gernon was tasked with determining whether there was some shadyness in how summons were issued after Batiste and then council member Jay Banks had a dust up. 6 officers, including a captain, 2 lieutenants, and 2 sergeants showed up at Batiste’s house to issue a minor summons. Yet, Banks was allowed to simply pick his up from a police station.

Somehow Gernon failed to conclude that a show of force of that magnitude wasn’t an act of intimidation or that Banks received preferential treatment. The Police Monitor wasn’t shy about calling that out in their report.

The report “asserts that Investigating Officer Capt. Gernon should have conducted a more thorough investigation into the allegations of disparate treatment and whether then-Councilmember Jay Banks’ political status had any influence over the involved officers.”

Nicholas Gernon

Should the Council Vet Chief’s Appointments?

And then again it says, “In reviewing this investigation, the OIPM concluded that Investigating Officer Capt. Gernon should have also considered the appearance and the perception that could be created by seeing a group of officers, including a district captain, two lieutenants, and two sergeants, showing up at a house unannounced to serve a summons for a minor offense.”

Ironically, one of the involved officers was Interim Chief Woodfork herself. Gernon cleared her. And now, she’s given him a promotion. Banks, meanwhile, got a position in the mayor’s office. In contrast, Batiste, one of the leaders of the mayoral recall, got harassed.

“Make this make sense to me,” Batiste said. “Woodfork is just promoting all of her friends. And we got good officers stepping down behind these appointments. It’s just another example of the favoritism and nepotism that 86% of officers said they was tired of.”

Some might say there’s nothing to see here. That it’s just an example of Woodfork getting a top position and bringing along the people she trusts most to help her serve. Possibly, but their performance and reputations precede them.

“I’m asking for justice,” Batiste said. “We need a plan and we need a plan now. People are being robbed, carjacked, bust in the head, and how we supposed to believe in this chief when she promoting people who cover up crimes? If she’s doing that, what else is she about to do?”

Being that the national search for a permanent chief is off to a less than stellar start, it looks like Woodfork will hold the position for a while. So going forward, we are all about to get a front row seat to see exactly what she’s about to do. Hopefully, in a good way, we’ll all be in store for a nice surprise.